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The most reliable way to check types in JavaScript

Typeof Operator

Type checking in JavaScript is notoriously difficult, as the typeof operator is essentially completely broken. JavaScript first uses weak typing, which means using the == operator will result in type coercion. When using === for objects, the operator compares for identity, not equality, checking to see if it’s the same instance.

It has some unpredictable behavior, such as returning Object when checking null.

Only use typeof if you want to check if a variable was declared or not, as such :

typeof foo !== 'undefined' //checks if foo is undefined

This will allow you to check if foo is declared without the code throwing a Reference Error.

[[ Class ]] Property

A reliable alternative? By using the toString() method on the Object prototype, we can print out its [[ class ]] property(Check out this article for more info). We simply override the context of the method by using the .call() method and we’ll be able to distinguish between Object, Array, Function, String, Number, Boolean, Null, Undefined and Symbol.

Note that since the toString() method is inherited from Object, it will return [Object] by default, so all we want to look at is the next bit by slicing out indices from 8 till the end.

var deepEquals = function(apple, orange){

  //we only care if they're both objects, or both arrays
  if ((objectChecker(apple) && objectChecker(orange)) || (Array.isArray(apple) && Array.isArray(orange))) {
    if (Object.keys(apple).length !== Object.keys(orange).length) {
      return false;
    } else {
      for (var key in apple) {
        if (!deepEquals(apple[key], orange[key])) {
          return false;
    return true;
  } else {
    return apple === orange;

function objectChecker(arg) {
  var verify =, -1);
  return verify === 'Object';

 var a = { b : { c : [1,2,3]}};
 var b = { b : { d : [1,2,3]}};
 var c = { b : { c : {d : 1}}};
 var d = { b : { c : {d : 1}}};
 console.log(deepEquals(c,d)); //true
 console.log(deepEquals(a,b)); // false
Published 6 Jun 2016